Annex A-Group research proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names: Lu Yi, Ng RaySon, Wong Yong Kang
Class: S2-03
Group Reference: E  

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
[            ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum
[            ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography
[     √     ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals
[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene
[ ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  

Type & Category
Type of research: _______3_________  (Write down one number from 1 to 6)  
Category  –  _________16____________ (Write down one number from 7 to 20)
Sub-category –  ________A _________ (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)

(Refer to http://sst2016-iss.blogspot.sg/p/l2-types-of-research-categories.html)

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:
           Global warming is an important issue we are facing in our current world. Scientist have claimed that global warming is caused by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, which results in an increase in global temperature. By measuring the temperature of different concentration of carbon dioxide, we can prove that what the scientist has said is true.

C.    Write down your research title:
Investigation of the Effect of Different CO2 Concentrations on the Temperature of the Gas.

D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed
We want to justify the statements that the scientists claimed is true. carbon dioxide produced by vehicles stay in the air and increase in the concentration of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, thereby causing a rise in temperature, which traps the heat, hence resulting in global warming on Earth.

(b) Independent variable (Variable that is changed)
The amount of carbon dioxide in the soda bottle. (Pour out the same amount of Coke of 250ml. Leave the bottle open for different duration of time, thus releasing the different amount of carbon dioxide, so as to get different concentration of carbon dioxide in each set-up)

(c) Dependent variable (Variable that is measured)
The temperature of the Air in the soda bottle.

(d) Controlled variables (Variable that you keep constant)
(a)  The place of the set-up
(b)  Temperature of the surrounding air
(c)  The amount of time the experiment was set-up

(e) Hypothesis:
    The scientists has said that greenhouse gases traps heat and cause the temperature to increase. Carbon dioxide is considered a greenhouse gas and thus, we think that a higher concentration of carbon dioxide will result in an increase in the temperature of its surrounding air. We want to justify the statements that the scientists claimed is true. The carbon dioxide produced by vehicles stay in the air and increase in the concentration of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, thereby causing a rise in temperature, which traps the heat, hence resulting in global warming on Earth. We are to change the amount of carbon dioxide in the soda bottle, thereby collecting the results of the temperature of the air in the Coke bottle. We are to control the place of the set-up, the temperature of the surrounding air and the amount of time the experiment was set-up. Hence, to change our hypothesis to match our results, our new hypothesis is the stronger the concentration of carbon dioxide, the higher the temperature in the Coke bottle, however, when the carbon dioxide is diffused, the temperature will not decrease.

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)
(a) Equipment list:
-       12 bottles of Coke (500ml)
-       1 liter BioChamber    
-       1 beaker
-      1 CO2 gas sensor
-      1 Data Logger
-      1 Stainless steel temperature probe
-        Cardboard Box
-        Stopper

(b) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
1. 250ml of Coke must be poured away within 5 seconds, to minimise the carbon dioxide escaping from the bottle.
2. For the first bottle, pour 250ml of the Coke drink away and close the cap immediately after pouring the Coke away.This is to ensure that the least amount of carbon Dioxide escape and this set-up has the highest amount of carbon dioxide.
3. For the second bottle, pour 250ml of the Coke drink away and close the cap after leaving it out open for 30 seconds. This is to ensure that some carbon dioxide escape and this set-up has the second highest amount of carbon dioxide.
4. For the third bottle, pour 250ml of the Coke drink away and close the cap after leaving it out open for 60 seconds. This is to ensure that a large amount of carbon dioxide (more than set-up 2) escape this set-up has the second lowest amount of carbon dioxide.
5. For the fourth bottle, pour 250ml of the Coke drink away. Shake the Coke for 10 seconds and leave it uncapped overnight before closing the cap. (By shaking the bottle, you are making it produce a lot of pressure, hence forcing the carbon dioxide out of the bottle.) This is to ensure that almost all the carbon dioxide escape and this set-up has the lowest amount of carbon dioxide.
6. Pour each set-up (one at a time) into the Bio chamber with the CO2 gas sensor and the temperature probe inserted.
7. Start the data collection on the data logger. (360 sample/h, 24h total)
8. Plot the data into a table.





(c) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.


(d) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
1.  Measure the temperature and amount of carbon dioxide inside each Coke bottle using the carbon dioxide gas sensor and the temperature probe connected to a data logger.
2. The data logger will record the data over 24 hours (360 sample/h).
3. From the graph, we can tell if the carbon dioxide affects the temperature.

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books
Schneider, R. (2013, April 8). A High Resolution Record of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Its Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition from the Penultimate Glacial Maximum to the Glacial Inception : Volume 9, Issue 2. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://community.worldlibrary.sg.proxy.lib.sg/eBooks/WPLBN0003982928-A-High-Resolution-Record-of-Atmospheric-Carbon-Dioxide-and-Its-Stable-Carbo-by-Schneider--R-.aspx?AffiliateKey=Kgx5TtuZ3PSo2YaNmnJve4HVBfLQp9SG
Schneider, R. (2013, November 6). A Reconstruction of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Its Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition from the Penultimate Glacial Maximum to the Last Glacial Inception : Volume 9, Issue 6. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://community.worldlibrary.sg.proxy.lib.sg/eBooks/WPLBN0004006568-A-Reconstruction-of-Atmospheric-Carbon-Dioxide-and-Its-Stable-Carbon-Isotop-by-Schneider--R-.aspx?AffiliateKey=Kgx5TtuZ3PSo2YaNmnJve4HVBfLQp9SG
      What would happen to the climate if we stopped emitting greenhouse gases today? (n.d.). Retrieved 24 February, 2016, from http://theconversation.com/what-would-happen-to-the-climate-if-we-stopped-emitting-greenhouse-gases-today-35011
     Dioxide and Its Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition from the Penultimate Glacial Maximum to the Last Schneider, R. (2013, November 6). A Reconstruction of Atmospheric Carbon Glacial Inception: Volume 9, Issue 6. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://community.worldlibrary.sg.proxy.lib.sg/eBooks/WPLBN0004006568-A-Reconstruction-of-Atmospheric-Carbon-Dioxide-and-Its-Stable-Carbon-Isotop-by-Schneider--R-.aspx?AffiliateKey=Kgx5TtuZ3PSo2YaNmnJve4HVBfLQp9SG

(b) Journals

    Frölicher, T. L., Winton, M., & Sarmiento, J. L. (2013). Continued global warming after CO2 emissions stoppage. Nature Climate Change Nature Climate Change,4(1), 40-44. Retrieved February 24, 2016, from http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v4/n1/full/nclimate2060.html


     The atmosphere of Venus Thick with carbon dioxide. (1934, August 18). Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.sg/stable/3910038?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=carbon&searchText=dioxide&searchUri=/action/doBasicSearch?Query=carbon+dioxide&acc=on&wc=on&fc=off&group=none&seq


(c) Websites
    Dunbar, B. (2010, October 13). Carbon dioxide Controls Earth's Temperature. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from  http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/co2-temperature.html

     Lenntech Water treatment & purification. (2009). Carbon dioxide. Retrieved 2016, from http://www.lenntech.com/carbon-dioxide.htm
    Jonathan, M., & Steven, A. (n.d.). How does carbon dioxide affect global warming? Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://wxguys.ssec.wisc.edu/how-does-carbon-dioxide-affect-global-warming/
     John, C. (2015, August 1). Climate Science Glossary. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from https://www.skepticalscience.com/empirical-evidence-for-co2-enhanced-greenhouse-effect.htm



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